Beyond their fundamental contribution by ‘being there’ as providers of theoretic knowledge, employers and buyers, many RIs consider it as a part of their core mission to offer specific services to a variety of external users. Beyond striving for excellent science, they seek to resolve problems articulated by economic and societal stakeholders in a targeted and coordinated manner. In the first round of RI-PATHS workshops, this aspect of science-society interaction was highlighted as potentially the most relevant by many participants. At the same time, there is an obvious lack of proven approaches to adequately account for such interactions. More precisely, capacities to leverage the accounting of the existing usage for the purpose of impact assessment needs to be further developed.