In a first, researchers identify reddish coloring in an ancient fossil mouse

X-rays reveal an extinct mouse was dressed in brown to reddish fur on its back and sides and had a tiny white tummy.

Researchers have for the first time detected chemical traces of red pigment in an ancient fossil – an exceptionally well-preserved mouse, not unlike today’s field mice, that roamed the fields of what is now the German village of Willershausen around 3 million years ago.
The study revealed that the extinct creature, affectionately nicknamed “mighty mouse” by the authors, was dressed in brown to reddish fur on its back and sides and had a tiny white tummy. The results were published today inNature Communications.
The international collaboration, led by researchers at the University of Manchester in the U.K., used X-ray spectroscopy and multiple imaging techniques to detect the delicate chemical signature of pigments in this long-extinct mouse.

>Read more on the SSRL at SLAC Lab website

Image: In this image showing the fossil chemistry of an ancient mouse, blue represents calcium in the bones, green is the element zinc which has been shown to be important in the biochemistry of red pigment and red is a particular type of organic sulfur. This type of sulfur is enriched in red pigment. When combined, regions rich in both zinc and sulfur appear yellow on this image, showing that the fur on this animal was rich in the chemical compounds that are most probably derived from the original red pigments produced by the mouse. (10.1038/s41467-019-10087-2)

‘A day in the light’ Videos highlight how scientists use light in experiment

In recognition of the International Day of Light (@IDL2019) on May 16, the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is highlighting how scientists use light in laboratory experiments. From nanolasers and X-ray beams to artificial photosynthesis and optical electronics, Berkeley Lab researchers tap into light’s many properties to drive a range of innovative R&D.
In the three videos displayed below, you will learn how light drives the science of Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS), a synchrotron that produces many forms of light beams. These light beams are customized to perform a variety of experimental techniques for dozens of simultaneous experiments conducted by researchers from across the nation and around the world.

> Read more on the Advanced Light Source at Berkley Lab website

Image: Shambhavi Pratap, ALS Doctoral Fellow in Residence and a Ph.D. student at the Technical University of Munich, discusses how she studies thin-film solar energy materials using X-rays at the ALS.
Credit: Marilyn Chung/Berkeley Lab


Record-shattering underwater sound

Researchers produced an underwater sound with an intensity that eclipses that of a rocket launch while investigating what happens when they blast tiny jets of water with X-ray laser pulses.

A team of researchers has produced a record-shattering underwater sound with an intensity that eclipses that of a rocket launch. The intensity was equivalent to directing the electrical power of an entire city onto a single square meter, resulting in sound pressures above 270 decibels. The team, which included researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, published their findings on April 10 in Physical Review Fluids.
Using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC’s X-ray laser, the researchers blasted tiny jets of water with short pulses of powerful X-rays. They learned that when the X-ray laser hit the jet, it vaporized the water around it and produced a shockwave. As this shockwave traveled through the jet, it created copies of itself, which formed a “shockwave train” that alternated between high and low pressures. Once the intensity of underwater sound crosses a certain threshold, the water breaks apart into small vapor-filled bubbles that immediately collapse. The pressure created by the shockwaves was just below this breaking point, suggesting it was at the limit of how loud sound can get underwater.

>Read more on the LCLS at SLAC website

Image: After blasting tiny jets of water with an X-ray laser, researchers watched left- and right-moving trains of shockwaves travel away from microbubble filled regions.
Credit: Claudiu Stan/Rutgers University Newark

Improving engine performance and fuel efficiency

A study conducted in part at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) at the University of Saskatchewan suggests reformulating lubricating oils for internal combustion engines could significantly improve not only the life of the oil but the life of the engine too.
Dr. Pranesh Aswath with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington and his research colleagues focused on the role soot plays in engine wear, and its effect on the stability of engine oil.
He described the research as “one piece of a broader story we’re trying to write” about how the reformulation of engine oils can reduce emissions, decrease wear and increase the longevity of engines.
Soot is a carbon-based material that results from incomplete combustion of fuel in an internal combustion engine, he explained. The soot ends up in crankcase oil where it is trapped by additives, but that leads to reduced engine efficiency and a breakdown of lubricating oil.

>Read more on the Canadian Light Source website

Killing two parasites with one stone

Each year Malaria affects 219 million people, causing almost half a million deaths. Crysptosporidiosis is the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in infants, leading to 200,000 deaths a year. An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Dundee, have discovered a molecule which clears the parasites that cause these two illnesses. Their results are published in PNAS.

Malaria is a well-known disease caused by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plamodium vivax and is the target of many available medications. However, the development of drug resistance has led the scientific community search for new therapeutic molecules which might provide for chemoprotection, prevention of transmission, and the treatment of relapsing malaria.
Like malaria, cryptosporidiosis is also a disease caused parasites, in this case Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Although it does not have the same ‘visibility as Malaria, Cryptosporidiosis is the leading cause worldwide of moderate-to-severe diarrheal diseases in infants and is estimated to lead to more than 200,000 deaths a year. The disease and is also associated with malnutrition, stunted growth, and cognitive-development problems in children. The currently approved drug, nitazoxanide, has poor efficacy, particularly in the case of immune-compromised patients and malnourished children, where there is no effective treatment.

>Read more on the ESRF website

Image: Binding modes of ligands bound to PfKRS1 and CpKRS. (A) PfKRS1:Lys:2 showing the binding mode of 2 (C atoms, gold) bound to the ATP site of PfKRS1 (PDB ID code 6AGT) superimposed upon PfKRS1:Lys:cladosporin (cladosporin C atoms, slate; PDB ID code 4PG3). (B) PfKRS1:5 showing binding mode of 5 bound to PfKRS1 (PDB ID code 6HCU). (See the full image: here)

17 meter long detector chamber delivered to CoSAXS

The experimental techniques used at the CoSAXS beamline will use a huge vacuum vessel with possibilities to accommodate two in-vacuum detectors in the SAXS/WAXS geometry.

A major milestone was reached for the CoSAXS project when this vessel was recently delivered, installed and tested.
The main method that will be used at the CoSAXS beamline is called Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By detecting the scattered rays coming from the sample at shallow angles, less than 4° typically, it is possible to learn about the size, shape, and orientation of the small building blocks that make up different samples and how this structure gives these materials their properties. The materials to be studied can come from various sources and in diverse states, for example, plastics from packaging, food and how it is processed or proteins in solution which can be used as drugs.
The “co” in CoSAXS stands for coherence, a quality of the synchrotron light optimized at the MAX IV machine, that loosely could be translated as laser-likeness. In the specific case of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS), it lets the researchers not only measure the structure of the building blocks in the sample but also their dynamics – how they change in time.

>Read more on the MAY IV Laboratory website

Research on sand near Hiroshima shows fallout debris from A-Bomb blast

X-ray studies at Berkeley Lab provide evidence for source of exotic assortment of melt debris

Mario Wannier, a career geologist with expertise in studying tiny marine life, was methodically sorting through particles in samples of beach sand from Japan’s Motoujina Peninsula when he spotted something unexpected: a number of tiny, glassy spheres and other unusual objects.
Wannier, who is now retired, had been comparing biological debris in beach sands from different areas in an effort to gauge the health of local and regional marine ecosystems. The work involved examining each sand particle in a sample under a microscope, and with a fine brush, separating particles of interest from grains of sediment into a tray for further study.

>Read more on the Advanced LIght Source at L. Berkeley Lab website

Image: Researchers collected and studied beach sands from locations near Hiroshima including Japan’s Miyajima Island, home to this torii gate, which at high tide is surrounded by water. The torii and associated Itsukushima Shinto Shrine, near the city of Hiroshima, are popular tourist attractions. The sand samples contained a unique collection of particles, including several that were studied at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley.
Credit: Ajay Suresh/Wikimedia Commons

WE13NSRRC Slider

Taiwan Light Source (TLS, 1.5 GeV) and Taiwan Photon Source (TPS, 3.0 GeV) are the two synchrotron light sources currently operated by the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). There are around 13,000 academic user visits to NSRRC every year; approximately 10% are international.