The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) is one of the pioneering synchrotron facilities in the world, known for outstanding user support, training future generations and important contributions to science and instrumentation. SSRL is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Stanford University.
The program of construction and commissioning through user experiments of the FEL source FERMI, the only FEL user facility in the world currently exploiting external seeding to offer intensity, wavelength and line width stability, achieved all of its intended targets in 2017.
The detailed development plan for Science Village gets a green light from the Government of Sweden which means that the construction of important support infrastructure for MAX IV and ESS can now start.
“This decision is obviously good for us. We welcome it and we have been waiting for a long time. We are happy for several reasons – in general, MAX IV needs neighbors to interact with, so this is an important step in that direction. The first project for us is the SPACE building that will be constructed for ESS and MAX IV in the near future. In the somewhat more distant future, Lund University plan to move a significant part of their activities to Brunnshög. For that, a green light from the government is mandatory and very much appreciated”, says Christoph Quitmann, Director of MAX IV.
An opportunity to take an unforgettable journey and explore ANSTO science virtually at the atomic scale
ANSTO is excited to announce its first virtual-reality experience, which provides full access to the OPAL multipurpose reactor. For security reasons, few people have the opportunity to see the real OPAL up-close—but with technology that will be shared at a select few locations and through a free VR app, you can take a deep dive into Australia’s only nuclear reactor.
Entering the unseen world of atoms, you will be able to follow three possible journeys of the neutron, an extremely useful subatomic particle produced in the core of the OPAL multipurpose reactor. By splitting uranium atoms to generate trillions of neutrons every second, OPAL makes a range of unique services possible at ANSTO’s Lucas Heights campus.
One of OPAL’s primary roles is to transform elements into nuclear medicine, helping to create a society in which everyone can enjoy good health. The nuclear medicine produced in OPAL will be used, on average, by one-in-two Australians for the detection and diagnosis of various illnesses or the treatment of some forms of cancer.
One of the biggest challenges for the advancement of wearable devices, embedded to clothing and accessories, which would be capable, for example, of continuously measuring and transmitting vital sign data, is the availability of power without the need for large batteries.
Thermoelectric materials – in which a temperature difference between two points of the material creates an electric current or vice versa – make it possible to obtain the electrical energy used by the device from the temperature difference between the surface of the human body and the ambient air.
The efficiency of these materials is characterized by their figure of merit, which is directly proportional to the electrical conductivity and the absolute temperature of the material and inversely proportional to its thermal conductivity. Thus, obtaining new materials with high value for at room temperature and low thermal conductivity is a key element for the development of a new generation of wearable devices based on thermoelectric heat recovery.
Taiwan Light Source (TLS, 1.5 GeV) and Taiwan Photon Source (TPS, 3.0 GeV) are the two synchrotron light sources currently operated by the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). There are around 13,000 academic user visits to NSRRC every year; approximately 10% are international.
An HZB team has developed an ingenious precision rotary table at the EDDI beamline at BESSY II and combined it with particularly fast optics.
This enabled them to document the formation of pores in grains of metal during foaming processes at 25 tomographic images per second – a world record.
The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.
Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends on the highest precision: Any tumbling around the rotation axis or even minimal deviations in the rotation speed would prevent the reliable calculation of the 3D tomography. While commercially available solutions costing several hundred thousand euros allow up to 20 tomographic images per second, the Berlin physicists were able to develop a significantly cheaper solution that is even faster. ”My two doctoral students at the Technische Universität Berlin produced the specimen holders themselves on the lathe”, says Garcia-Moreno, who not only enjoys working out solutions to tricky technical problems, but possesses a lot of craftsman skill himself as well. Additional components were produced in the HZB workshop. In addition, Garcia-Moreno and his colleague Dr. Catalina Jimenez had already developed specialized optics for the fast CMOS camera during the preliminary stages of this work that allows even for simultaneous diffraction. This makes it possible to record approximately 2000 projections per second, from which a total of 25 three-dimensional tomographic images can be created.
Image: Experimental setup is composed of a fast-rotation stage, an IR heating lamp (temperature up to 800 °C), a BN crucible transparent to X-rays, a 200-μm thick LuAG:Ce scintillator, a white-beam optical system, and a PCO Dimax CMOS camera. The incident (red) and transmitted (green) X-ray beams as well as the light path from the scintillator to the camera (blue) are shown.
CO2 is an environmentally important gas that plays a crucial role in climate change.
It is a compound that is also present in the depth of the Earth but very little information about it is available. What happens to CO2 in the Earth’s mantle? Could it be eventually hosted underground? A new publication in Nature Communications unveils some key findings.
Carbon dioxide is a widespread simple molecule in the Universe. In spite of its simplicity, it has a very complex phase diagram, forming both amorphous and crystalline phases above the pressure of 40 GPa. In the depths of the Earth, CO2 does not appear as we know it in everyday life. Instead of being a gas consisting of molecules, it has a polymeric solid form that structurally resembles quartz (a main mineral of sand) due to the pressure it sustains, which is a million times bigger than that at the surface of the Earth.
Researchers have been long studying what happens to carbonates at high temperature and high pressure, the same conditions as deep inside the Earth. Until now, the majority of experiments had shown that CO2 decomposes, with the formation of diamond and oxygen. These studies were all focused on CO2 at the upper mantle, with a 70 GPa of pressure and 1800-2800 Kelvin of temperature.
Picture: Mohamed Mezouar, scientist in charge of ID27, on the beamline.
Credit: S. Candé.
X-ray studies reveal details of how P. juliflora shrub roots scavenge and immobilize arsenic from toxic mine tailings.
Working in collaboration with scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, researchers at the University of Arizona have identified details of how certain plants scavenge and accumulate pollutants in contaminated soil. Their work revealed that plant roots effectively “lock up” toxic arsenic found loose in mine tailings—piles of crushed rock, fluid, and soil left behind after the extraction of minerals and metals. The research shows that this strategy of using plants to stabilize pollutants, called phytostabilization, could even be used in arid areas where plants require more watering, because the plant root activity alters the pollutants to forms that are unlikely to leach into groundwater.
The Arizona based researchers were particularly concerned with exploring phytostabilization strategies for mining regions in the southwestern U.S., where tailings can contain high levels of arsenic, a contaminant that has toxic effects on humans and animals. In the arid environment with low levels of vegetation, wind and water erosion can carry arsenic and other metal pollutants to neighboring communities.
Image: Scientists from the University of Arizona collect plant samples from the mine tailings at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in central Arizona. X-ray studies at Brookhaven Lab helped reveal how these plants’ roots lock up toxic forms of arsenic in the soil.
Credit: Jon Chorover