LEAPS and FELs of Europe meetings at Elettra

On March 12-13 Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste hosted the 2nd meeting of General Assembly (GA) of the League of European Accelerator-based Photon Sources (LEAPS), a strategic consortium that includes 16 Synchrotron Radiation and Free Electron Laser (FEL) user facilities in Europe based in 10 different European countries .
This followed the LEAPS Launch Event in Brussels on November 13, 2017. The main topics of the GA meeting were the LEAPS Governance Structure and the LEAPS Strategy Paper to be forwarded to the EU Commission during the Bulgarian Presidency Conference on Research Infrastructures in Sofia, 22-23 March.

>Read more on the Elettra and FERMI website

Image: LEAPS General Assembly and Coordination Board group picture.
Credit: Fotorolli

COSMIC impact: next-gen X-ray microscopy platform now operational

A next-generation X-ray beamline now operating at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) brings together a unique set of capabilities to measure the properties of materials at the nanoscale.

Called COSMIC, for Coherent Scattering and Microscopy, this X-ray beamline at Berkeley Lab’s Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS) allows scientists to probe working batteries and other active chemical reactions, and to reveal new details about magnetism and correlated electronic materials.
COSMIC has two branches that focus on different types of X-ray experiments: one for X-ray imaging experiments and one for scattering experiments. In both cases, X-rays interact with a sample and are measured in a way that provides, structural, chemical, electronic, or magnetic information about samples.

The beamline is also intended as an important technological bridge toward the planned ALS upgrade, dubbed ALS-U, that would maximize its capabilities.

>Read more on the Advanced Light Source website

Image: X-rays strike a scintillator material at the COSMIC beamline, causing it to glow.
Credit: Simon Morton/Berkeley Lab

A colour photography pioneer comes to light thanks to the synchrotron

The colour prints of Louis Ducos du Hauron, an unknown pioneer of colour photography, have been put under the infrared and X-rays at the ESRF, the European Synchrotron (Grenoble, France) to better understand the methods he used. A team of researchers and curators from the ESRF, CNRS, C2RMF , Musée d’Orsay, École nationale supérieure Louis Lumière, the faculty of Science and Engineering of the Sorbonne University, the Chimie Paris Tech and a private photography conservator and curator has published the results of this study in Angewandte Chemie.

Who invented colour photography?

To this question, most people would reply “the brothers Lumière”. Their procedure “autochrome” is recorded into posterity because the brothers commercialised it with success. However, a photography pioneer has been kept in the shadow: Louis Ducos du Hauron. This is despite the fact that he patented an animated image-processing method in 1864, the same year that Louis Lumière was born. He was the first one to produce three-color prints using three negatives printed into three colour positives (one red, one yellow and one blue), in a similar manner to how printers today function.

As if he were a cook, Ducos du Hauron spent his life creating “recipes” – procedures based on scientific experimentation- to achieve a faithful reconstruction of reality through colour photographs. He photographed each scene through green, orange, and violet filters, then printed his three negatives on three thin films of dichromate gelatin containing red, blue, and yellow pigments, the complementary colours of the filters used for the negatives. When the three positives were superimposed, a full-colour photograph resulted.

>Read more on the European Synchrotron (ESRF) website

Image: General principle of three-color carbon printing developed by Ducos du Hauron. (Full image here)
Credit: ESRF

The United Kingdom officially joins European XFEL

At signing ceremony in Berlin, UK becomes twelfth member

Today, the UK joined European XFEL as the research organization’s twelfth member state. In a ceremony at the British Embassy in Berlin, representatives of the UK government and the other contract parties including the German federal government signed the documents to join the European XFEL Convention. The UK’s contribution will amount to 26 million Euro, or about 2% of the total construction budget of 1.22 billion Euro (both in 2005 prices) and an annual contribution of about 2 % to the operation budget. The UK will be represented in European XFEL by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) as shareholder.

Chair of the European XFEL Council Prof. Martin Meedom Nielsen who was present at the signing said: “All member states are very happy that the United Kingdom now officially joins the European XFEL. The UK science community has been very active in the project since the very beginning, and their contribution of ideas and know-how has been always highly appreciated. Together, we will maintain and develop the European XFEL as a world leading facility for X-ray science.”

>Read more on the European XFEL website

Picture: Buddy Bartelsen for British Embassy Berlin

Investigation of metal deposition in organs after joint replacement

Synchrotron analysis shows potentially harmful metals from implants can find their way into human organs.

The hip replacement is considered to be one of the most successful orthopaedic interventions, with 75,000 performed each year by the NHS alone. However, the implants used to replace hips contain metals, such as chromium and cobalt, which are potentially toxic and which can be deposited into tissues around the implant site due to wear and corrosion. A team of researchers used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on the I18 beamline to show that these metals can also find their way into organ tissues. Their results suggest that chronic diseases, such as diabetes, may create conditions in which mildly toxic trivalent chromium (CrIII) particles from replacement joints are reoxidised within the body to form carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Their results have been published in the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology.

>Read more on the Diamond Light Source website

Image: Overview of the study (entire figure to see here).

Tuning the electronic structure of a 2D material

Stacked 2D materials possess an array of tunable properties that are expected to be important for future applications in electronics and optics.

When some atomically thin—or 2D—materials are stacked like Lego bricks in different combinations with other ultrathin materials, new properties often emerge that are potentially useful for next-generation device applications. For example, tungsten disulfide (WS2) is a semiconductor that belongs to a family of 2D materials (transition-metal dichalcogenides, or TMDs) that have received an enormous amount of interest due to their many advantageous properties that can be tuned by mixing and matching them in stacks with other 2D materials.

In this work, single-layer WS2 was stacked on a thin flake of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), all on a base of titanium dioxide (TiO2). This heterostructure provided a stable, non-interacting platform that enabled a team of researchers to directly and accurately probe the WS2 electronic states and excitations, including the effects of interactions between the electrons themselves (many-body effects), at a level of detail not previously possible.

MAESTRO’s exquisite sensitivity

MAESTRO (Microscopic and Electronic Structure Observatory), a facility at ALS Beamline 7.0.2 that opened to scientists in 2016, can handle very small sample sizes, on the order of tens of microns, which is key to studying 2D materials. Scientists are continuing to push MAESTRO’s capabilities to study even smaller features—down to the nanoscale. The endstation also features the ability to fabricate and manipulate samples for x-ray studies while maintaining pristine conditions that protect them from contamination.

>Read more on the Advanced Light Source website

Image: Rendering of the atomic structure of a 2D layer of tungsten disulfide, or WS2 (blue and yellow), on top of layers of 2D boron nitride (silver and gold). Above that is a representation of the WS2 conduction band (pink-edged metallic surface) and valence bands (green- and blue-edged metallic surfaces). The results of this experiment suggest that the observed increase in valence-band splitting could be due to the presence of “trions,” exotic three-particle combinations of holes and electrons (red circles), in the conduction and valence bands. The background shows the raw WS2 electronic-structure data, as measured in the experiment.
Credit: Chris Jozwiak/Berkeley Lab

Study suggests water may exist in Earth’s lower mantle

Water on Earth runs deep – very deep. The oceans have been measured to a maximum depth of 7 miles, though water is known to exist well below the oceans. Just how deep this hidden water reaches, and how much of it exists, are the subjects of ongoing research.

Now a new study suggests that water may be more common than expected at extreme depths approaching 400 miles and possibly beyond – within Earth’s lower mantle. The study, which appeared March 8 in the journal Science, explored microscopic pockets of a trapped form of crystallized water molecules in a sampling of diamonds from around the world.

Diamond samples from locations in Africa and China were studied through a variety of techniques, including a method using infrared light at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). Researchers used Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS), and Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source, which are research centers known as synchrotron facilities.

>Read more on the Advanced Light Source website

Photo: Oliver Tschauner, professor of research in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, holds a diamond sample during a recent round of experiments at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source.
Credit: Marilyn Chung/Berkeley Lab

Twin Orbit operation successfully tested at BESSY II

The first “Twin Orbit User Test week” at BESSY II in February 2018 was a big success and can be considered as an important step towards real user operation.

Physicists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin have been able to store two separate electron beams in one storage ring. The twin orbit operation mode can serve users with different needs of the time structure of the photon pulses simultaneously and offers elegant options regarding the future project BESSY VSR.

The Twin Orbit operation mode makes use of non-linear beam dynamics and provides two stable well separated orbits for storing two electron beams in one storage ring. The bunch fill patterns of both orbits can be chosen, to some extent, independently, which allows for fulfilling normally incompatible user needs, simultaneously. For example, one orbit can be used to store a homogenous multi bunch fill to deliver high average brilliance for photon hungry experiments, whereas only one single bunch is stored on the other orbit for timing experiments, providing a much lower pulse repetition rate.

>Read more on the Bessy II at HZB website

Image: A synchrotron source point image of a bending magnet of the Twin Orbit modus. The second orbit closes after three revolution and is winding around the standard orbit at the center. (full image here)
Credit: HZB

Researchers obtain nanometric magnetite with full properties

When reducing materials at the nanoscale, they typically lose some of their properties. The experiments have been carried out at the CIRCE beamline of the ALBA Synchrotron.

Magnetite is a candidate material for various applications in spintronics, meaning that can be employed in devices where the spin of the electron is used to store or manipulate information. However, when it is necessary to create structures of the material at the nanometric scale, their properties get worse. A study, recently published in the scientific journal Nanoscale, has proved that, with suitable growth, magnetite could be used to create nanostructured magnetic elements without losing their properties.

“Oxides have been proposed to be used for spin waves in triangular structures for computing. And our results suggest that magnetite could be used for this purpose, “says Juan de la Figuera, scientist from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC).

>Read more on the ALBA website

Image: Beamline involved where nanometric magnetite has been obtained, keeping its full properties.
Credit: ALBA

Major upgrade of the NCD beamline

The NCD beamline, now NCD-SWEET, devoted to Small Angle and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS, WAXS), is offering users further experimental possibilities and higher quality data.

The SAXS beamline of ALBA has gone through a major upgrade in 2017. Upgraded items in the SAXS WAXS experimental techniques (SWEET) involve a new monochromator system, a new photon counting detector (Pilatus 1M), a new sample table with an additional rotating stage, and a beam conditioning optics with µ-focus and GISAXS options.

The original double crystal monochromator (DCM) has been replaced by a channel-cut silicon (1 1 1), improving the beam stability at sample position up to 0.9% and 0.4% of the beam size horizontally and vertically, respectivelly.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Figure: Vertical beam profile with the Be lenses into the beam (Horizontal axis unit is mm). The plot is the derivative of an edge scan along the vertical direction. The horizontal beam profile shows a gaussian shape as well.

Scientists work toward new canola varieties as clubroot spreads across the Prairies

Scientists are in a race against a disease that threatens canola, one of Western Canada’s most important crops, and they are looking to the Canadian Light Source to learn more about the genetic resistance to this disease.

Clubroot causes swelling on the canola roots eventually killing the plant. Finding a way for those roots to resist this soil-borne disease is the cornerstone of the strategy for managing the disease, says Gary Peng, a scientist at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Saskatoon Research and Development Centre.

“The consequences of clubroot in a canola field can be devastating. It can wipe out the whole crop,” said Peng.

The first case of clubroot in canola was reported in 2003 in several fields in the Edmonton area. The infestation spread rapidly to fields north of the city and the disease is now found in more than 2,000 fields in a wide band across Alberta. In Saskatchewan, it was first detected in 2008, but significant evidence of the disease attacking the roots of canola plants wasn’t identified until 2011, according to the Canola Council of Canada.

>Read more on the Canadian Lightsource website