The structures provide an atomic-level blueprint from which to design more effective anti-influenza drugs that can overcome growing drug resistance.
Influenza virus infection is a perennial problem. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the 2017-18 flu season saw high levels of emergency-department visits for influenza-like illness, high influenza-related hospitalization rates, and elevated and geographically widespread influenza activity for an extended period.
Although yearly vaccinations can reduce the number of flu infections, these vaccines are able to target only a subset of viral strains—there is, as yet, no “universal vaccine.” As a result, there is still a need for antiviral drugs to treat the illness after infection has occurred. This is especially important for groups of people who can experience serious complications from the flu, such as those with respiratory diseases or immune disorders. In recent years, however, resistance to certain classes of antiviral drugs has become a problem.
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Image: Molecular dynamics simulation of a drug molecule, amantadine (cyan sticks), in the M2 proton channel. The drug’s ammonium group (blue tip) mimics hydronium, stabilizing the drug molecule in a position to block the channel.