In mechanochemistry, reagents are finely ground and mixed so that they combine to form the desired product, even without need for solvent. By eliminating solvent, this technology promises to contribute significantly towards ‘green’ and environmentally benign chemical manufacture in the future. However, there are still major gaps in understanding the key processes that occur during mechanical treatment and reaction. A team led by the Federal Institute for Materials Research (BAM) has now developed a method at BESSY II to observe these processes in situ with X-ray scattering.
Chemical reactions are often based on the use of solvents that pollute the environment. Yet, many reactions can also work without solvent. This is the approach known as mechanochemistry, in which reagents are very finely ground and mixed together so that they react with each other to form the desired product. The mechanochemical approach is not only more environmentally friendly, but even potentially cheaper than classical synthesis methods. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) therefore ranks mechanochemistry among the 10 chemical innovations that will change our world. However, the full potential of this technology cannot be realized until the processes during mechanical treatment are understood in more detail, so that it is possible to precisely direct and control them.
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Image: Finely ground powders can also react with each other without solvents to form the desired product. This is the approach of mechanochemistry.
Credit: © F. Emmerling/BAM