New materials for the reduction of vehicle pollution

Research develops nanostructured material with high oxygen storage and release capacity for the improvement of catalytic converters

Complete combustion of both fossil and biofuels generates carbon dioxide (CO2) and water as final products. However, incomplete combustion of these substances can occur in automobile engines, generating important pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (such as NO and NO2).
To reduce the emission of these toxic substances, an equipment called a catalytic converter is used in the exhaust of vehicles. Materials called catalysts promote and accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed during the process. They retain on their surface the reactant molecules, weakening the bonds between the atoms and causing the pollutants to be converted into less harmful gases.
The action of the catalytic converter happens in three stages. The first stage converts the nitrogen oxides into nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases. The second stage breaks down bonds of unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, turning them into CO2. Finally, the third stage has an oxygen sensor to regulate the intake of air and fuel to the engine, so that the amount of oxygen is always close to the most efficient for the different reactions.

>Read more on the Brazilian Light Laboratory (LNLS) website