Scientists use X-rays to see the true nature of chocolate.
The taste of a silky piece of rich chocolate is one of life’s great pleasures, and producing a smooth mouthfeel is an aspiration of every serious chocolatier. The characteristics that truly set haute chocolate apart can be seen at the microscale thanks to recent, pivotal research performed by researchers from the University of Guelph at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.
In a series of studies, University of Guelph researcher Fernanda Peyronel used a technique called ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) to investigate a property called fractal dimension, a particular feature of the geometric configuration of tiny particles of chocolate. “Basically, we’re trying to see whether these particles have a more open or a more closed structure and to correlate that to the mouthfeel experienced by consumers,” Peyronel said.
The USAXS technique allows scientists to resolve particles that range in size from a few hundred nanometers to around 10 micrometers — roughly the limit at which our taste buds can distinguish different textures. The beamline at the APS also accommodates detectors for small-angle x-ray scattering as well as large-angle x-ray scattering. These allow scientists to study their systems from less than a nanometer to around 10 micrometers.