Tiny Chip-Based Device Performs Ultrafast Manipulation of X-Rays

Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Center for Nanoscale Materials at Argonne National Laboratory have developed and demonstrated new x-ray optics that can be used to harness extremely fast pulses in a package that is significantly smaller and lighter than conventional devices used to manipulate x-rays. The new optics are based on microscopic chip-based devices known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

“Our new ultrafast optics-on-a-chip is poised to enable x-ray research and applications that could have a broad impact on understanding fast-evolving chemical, material and biological processes,” said research team leader Jin Wang from the X-ray Science Division Time Resolved Research (TRR) Group at the APS. “This could aid in the development of more efficient solar cells and batteries, advanced computer storage materials and devices, and more effective drugs for fighting diseases.”

In new results published in The Optical Society OSA) journal Optics Express, the researchers demonstrated their new x-ray optics-on-a-chip device (Fig. 1), which measures about 250 micrometers and weighs just 3 micrograms, using the TRR Group’s 7-ID-C x-ray beamline at the APS. The tiny device performed 100 to 1,000 times faster than conventional x-ray optics, which that tend to be bulky.

Read more on the APS website

Image: Fig. 1. The photograph shows two MEMS elements on a single chip (A), with the active elements of 250 µm × 250 µm, and the micrograph (B) highlighting the size of the diffractive element, as compared to a section of human hair (C).

Strong and resilient synthetic tendons produced from hydrogels

Human tissues exhibit a remarkable range of properties. A human heart consists mostly of muscle that cyclically expands and contracts over a lifetime. Skin is soft and pliable while also being resilient and tough. And our tendons are highly elastic and strong and capable of repeatedly stretching thousands of times per day. While limited success has been achieved in producing man-made materials that can mimic some of the properties of natural tissues (for instance polymers used as synthetic skin for wound repair) scientists have failed to create artificial materials that can match all the outstanding features of tendons and many other natural tissues. An international team of researchers has transformed a standard hydrogel into an artificial tendon with properties that meet and even surpass those of natural tendons. This new material was examined via electron microscopy and x-ray scattering to reveal the microscopic structures responsible for its outstanding features. The x-ray measurements were gathered at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Photon Source (APS). The researchers have shown that their new hydrogel-based material can be modified to mimic a variety of human tissues and could also potentially be adapted to non-biological roles. Their results were published in the journal Nature.

Read more on the APS website

Image: Fig. 1. SEM images (left) showing the deformation of the mesh-like nanofibril network during stretching and corresponding in situ SAXS patterns (right). Scale bars, 1 μm (SEM images); 0.025 Å−1 (SAXS images)

Credit: From M. Hua et al., Strong tough hydrogels via the synergy of freeze-casting and salting out,” Nature 590, 594 (25 February 2021). © 2021 Springer Nature Limited

Under wraps: X-rays reveal 1,900-year-old mummy’s secrets

Researchers used the powerful X-rays of the Advanced Photon Source to see the preserved remains of an ancient Egyptian girl without disturbing the linen wrappings. The results of those tests point to a new way to study mummified specimens.

The mummified remains of ancient Egyptians hold many secrets, from the condition of the bodies to the artifacts placed within the burial garments. Now a team of researchers has found a way to unwrap those secrets, without unraveling the mummies themselves.

Three years ago, researchers from Northwestern University, in preparation for an exhibit on campus, carefully transported a 1,900-year-old mummy to the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory. There scientists used powerful X-ray beams to peer inside the layers of linen and resin to examine the 2,000-year-old bones and objects buried within.

Read more on the Argonne National Laboratory website

Image: In 2017, Stuart Stock, center, of Northwestern University, talks with Rachel Sabino, right, of the Art Institute of Chicago while Argonne scientist Ali Mashayekhi, left, makes adjustments to the apparatus holding a 1,900-year-old Egyptian mummy.

Credit: Mark Lopez / Argonne National Laboratory.

A kappa diffractometer for intermediate X-ray energies at APS beamline 29-ID

An ultra-high vacuum, non-magnetic kappa geometry diffractometer has been designed and commissioned for the resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) branch of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) Intermediate Energy X-ray (IEX) beamline 29-ID at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Beamline 29-ID is managed by the XSD Magnetic Materials Group; the APS is an Office of Science user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. There were three main design goals for this diffractometer: kappa geometry, non-magnetic, and high-precision. The kappa geometry was chosen to allow for a large q-range and space for a sample environment (electric or magnetic fields). Non-magnetic components were used for all the components above and including the κ-arm to avoid disturbing magnetic or electric fields during experiments. Lastly, the diffractometer precision requirement of a sphere of confusion (SOC) of less than 50 µm was a key driving factor for this instrument in terms of rotation stages and machining precision.

The complete diffractometer can be seen in Fig. 1(a), shown installed into the RSXS UHV vacuum chamber at 29-ID. The precise SOC (< 50 µm) requirement drove the design method. In order to reach this goal, it was decided that a combination of precision machining, Finite element analysis, and stage precision would be used instead of calibrating an error-correction table. This has the advantage that the upper bound of the SOC requirement can be achieved without any control hardware, making the device more robust.

Read more on the Advanced Photon Source Website

Image: Fig1. (a) Image of the commissioned kappa diffractometer inside the RSXS vacuum chamber on the APS 29-ID beamline with the main components identified. (b) A close up model of the components above the f axis. The model also shows the new thermal break and thermal strap.

New state-of-the-art beamlines for the APS

The two new beamlines will be constructed as part of a comprehensive upgrade of the APS, enhancing its capabilities and maintaining its status as a world-leading facility for X-ray science.

In a socially distanced ceremony this morning at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, leaders from DOE, Argonne and the University of Chicago broke ground on the future of X-ray science in the United States.

Today’s small gathering marked the start of construction on the Long Beamline Building, a new experiment hall that will house two new beamlines that will transport the ultrabright X-rays generated by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to advanced scientific instruments. It will be built as part of the $815 million upgrade of the APS, a DOE Office of Science User Facility and one of the most productive light sources in the world. The APS, which is in essence a stadium-sized X-ray microscope, attracts more than 5,000 scientists from around the globe to conduct research each year in many fields ranging from chemistry to life sciences to materials science to geology.

Read more on the Argonne National Laboratory website

Image : Artist’s rendition of the Long Beamline Building. The new facility will be built as part of a major upgrade of the APS and will house two new beamlines.

Credit: HDR Architects

Scientists use pressure to make liquid magnetism breakthrough

It sounds like a riddle: What do you get if you take two small diamonds, put a small magneticcrystal between them and squeeze them together very slowly?

The answer is a magnetic liquid, which seems counterintuitive. Liquids become solids under pressure, but not generally the other way around. But this unusual pivotal discovery, unveiled by a team of researchers working at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, may provide scientists with new insight into high-temperature superconductivity and quantum computing.

Though scientists and engineers have been making use of superconducting materials for decades, the exact process by which high-temperature superconductors conduct electricity without resistance remains a quantum mechanical mystery. The telltale signs of a superconductor are a loss of resistance and a loss of magnetism. High-temperature superconductors can operate at temperatures above those of liquid nitrogen (−320 degrees Fahrenheit), making them attractive for lossless transmission lines in power grids and other applications in the energy sector.

Read more on the APS website

Image: APS

Argonne scientists fashion new class of X-ray detector

The original Argonne press release by Jared Sagoff can be read here.

Getting an X-ray at the dentist or the doctor is at best a little inconvenient and at worst a little risky, as radiation exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer. But researchers may have discovered a new way to generate precise X-ray images with a lower amount of exposure, thanks to an exciting set of materials that is generating a lot of interest.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have identified a new class of X-ray detectors based on layered perovskites, a semiconducting material also used in some other types of applications such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. The detector with the new material is 100 times more sensitive than conventional, silicon-based X-ray detectors.

>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source website.

Image: Two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper phase layered perovskites (BA)2(MA)2Pb3I10 with three layers of inorganic octahedral slab and bulky organics as spacers.

Credit: Image by Dave Tsai/Los Alamos.

Crystals, lasers, glasses, and bent molecules: adventures in nonlinear optics

Light is an indispensable scientific tool. For example, laser-based optical sensors can detect oxygen in the environment, proteins in biomedical samples, and process markers in industrial settings, among other applications. However, not all wavelengths of light can be generated by a single laser, which limits what chemicals can be detected with optical sensing. That’s where nonlinear optical crystals can help. By shining multiple lasers with different wavelengths through such crystals, researchers can tune laser beams via frequency conversion and cover more of the optical spectra. This has been a successful approach for wavelengths from ultraviolet to near-infrared(IR), but the mid-IR region has lacked practical nonlinear optical crystals. However, crystals may not be the only game in town. A multi-institution international research team is exploring a possible solution to the crystal problem: cutting-edge glasses containing mercuric iodide. The idea is that these glasses could behave like nonlinear optical crystals, offering an enticing approach to the generation of novel amorphous optical materials. But first, the researchers needed to figure out what these glasses look like at the atomic scale. For that, they went to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect high-energy x-ray diffraction data. By combining the diffraction data with other structural data and computer modeling, the team uncovered the secrets behind how a glass can act like a crystal.

Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in photonics applications, but can be challenging to synthesize. To sidestep the need for crystals, scientists have been pursuing glassy materials that can tune lasers. One challenge is that glassy materials with isotropic internal structures aren’t able to perform the frequency conversion necessary to tune lasers. However, glasses with chiral asymmetric properties have nonlinear optical potential. This research team is investigating hybrid molecular/network glasses with non-centrosymmetric mercuric iodide (HgI2).

>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) website

Image: Schematic representation of second harmonic generation as light passes through bent HgI2 molecules adopting a non-random orientation within mesoscopic domains of sulfide glass.

Researchers find what makes chocolate melt in your mouth

Scientists use X-rays to see the true nature of chocolate.

The taste of a silky piece of rich chocolate is one of life’s great pleasures, and producing a smooth mouthfeel is an aspiration of every serious chocolatier.  The characteristics that truly set haute chocolate apart can be seen at the microscale thanks to recent, pivotal research performed by researchers from the University of Guelph at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.

In a series of studies, University of Guelph researcher Fernanda Peyronel used a technique called ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) to investigate a property called fractal dimension, a particular feature of the geometric configuration of tiny particles of chocolate. “Basically, we’re trying to see whether these particles have a more open or a more closed structure and to correlate that to the mouthfeel experienced by consumers,” Peyronel said.

The USAXS technique allows scientists to resolve particles that range in size from a few hundred nanometers to around 10 micrometers — roughly the limit at which our taste buds can distinguish different textures. The beamline at the APS also accommodates detectors for small-angle x-ray scattering as well as large-angle x-ray scattering. These allow scientists to study their systems from less than a nanometer to around 10 micrometers.

>Read more on the APS at Argonne website

The active role of collagen in building bones

We use our skeleton every day, but our mental model of our bones may look more like a glow-in-the-dark Halloween costume, or a teaching skeleton hanging on a sitcom set, than true anatomy. While these common representations of skeletons focus on the sturdy aspects of bones, the structural frames of actual bones are built by a soft organic portion. To create bones, the human body precipitates calcium phosphate minerals using collagen, a long protein, as scaffolding. Our bodies mineralize calcium phosphate both inside and outside collagen-confined spaces, and scientists are still working to understand how the two types of mineralization occur. Recent research at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source (APS) has investigated mineralization rates and shown that collagen structures reduce the energy barriers to mineralization by providing a substrate on which the calcium phosphate can precipitate. Since common bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, hinge on an abnormal calcium phosphate precipitation process, this improved understanding of the role of collagen in precipitation could lead to insight into the treatment of these diseases.

>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab

Figure (extract, full image here) This scanning electron microscopy image shows calcium phosphate minerals nucleation in both extrafibrillar (purple colored image) and intrafibrillar (green colored image) spaces of collagen matrices. Without polyaspartic acid, extrafibrillar nucleation of calcium phosphate is dominant while with polyaspartic acid, intrafibrillar nucleation mainly occurs.

For superconductors, discovery comes from disorder

Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation.  However, determining what causes substances to become — or stop being — superconductors remains a central question in finding new candidates for this special class of materials.

In potential superconductors, there may be several ways electrons can arrange themselves. Some of these reinforce the superconducting effect, while others inhibit it. In a new study, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have explained the ways in which two such arrangements compete with each other and ultimately affect the temperature at which a material becomes superconducting.

>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab website

Image: This image shows the transition between Cooper pair density (indicated by blue dots) and charge density waves. Argonne scientists found that by introducing defects, they could disrupt charge density waves and increase superconductivity.
Credit:
Ellen Weiss / Argonne National Laboratory

Advanced Photon Source upgrade

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) has given DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory approval in the next phase of the $815M upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a premier national research facility that equips scientists for discoveries that impact our technologies, economy, and national security.
DOE’s Critical Decision 3 (CD-3) milestone approval is a significant recognition of DOE’s acceptance of Argonne’s final design report for the complex APS Upgrade (APS-U), and authorizes the laboratory to proceed with procurements needed to build the nation’s brightest energy, storage-ring based X-ray source. The upgrade positions the APS to be a global leader among the new generation of storage-ring light sources that is now emerging.
Argonne’s APS, which works like a giant X-ray microscope, is a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Scientific User Facilities Division of the Basic Energy Sciences Program in the Office of Science. It produces extremely bright, focused X-rays that peer through dense materials and illuminate the structure and chemistry of matter at the molecular and atomic level. By way of comparison, the X-rays produced at today’s APS are up to one billion times brighter than the X-rays produced in a typical dentist office.

Read more on the APS at Argonne National Laboratory website

Research on shark vertebrae could improve bone disease treatment

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory has facilitated tens of thousands of experiments across nearly every conceivable area of scientific research since it first saw light more than two decades ago.
But it wasn’t until earlier this year that the storied facility was used to study shark vertebrae in an experiment that one Northwestern University researcher hopes will shed light on the functionality of human bone and cartilage. Shark spines constantly flex when they swim, said Stuart R. Stock, a materials scientist and faculty member of Northwestern’s Feinberg School of Medicine. Yet they remain surprisingly resilient throughout the fish’s lifetime, he said.

Human bones, however, cannot endure the same kind of bending and become more fragile as people age. Stock is using the APS to better understand shark vertebrae’s formation and strength. He wants to know how the animal’s tissue develops and how it functions when the animal swims.

>Read more on the APS at Argonne National Laboratory website

Optical ​“tweezers” combine with X-rays to enable analysis of crystals in liquids

Understanding how chemical reactions happen on tiny crystals in liquid solutions is central to a variety of fields, including materials synthesis and heterogeneous catalysis, but obtaining such an understanding requires that scientists observe reactions as they occur.

By using coherent X-ray diffraction techniques, scientists can measure the exterior shape of and strain in nanocrystalline materials with a high degree of precision. However, carrying out such measurements requires precise control of the position and angles of the tiny crystal with respect to the incoming X-ray beam. Traditionally, this has meant adhering or gluing the crystal to a surface, which in turn strains the crystal, thus altering its structure and potentially affecting reactivity.

>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne Laboratory website

Image: Scientists have found a way to use “optical tweezers” by employing lasers, a mirror and a light modulator to anchor a crystal in solution. The “tweezers” have made it possible to conduct X-ray diffraction measurements of a crystal suspended in solution.
Credit: Robert Horn/Argonne National Laboratory.

A new molecule could help put the STING on cancer

The protein STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a component of the innate immune system. It plays a major role in the immune response to cancer, and abnormal STING signaling has been shown to be associated with certain cancers. Immunomodulatory approaches using agonists to target STING signaling are therefore being investigated as anticancer treatments. However, the compounds in clinical trials typically are injected intratumorally in patients with solid cancers. In this study, researchers discovered a novel STING agonist, known as an amidobenzimidazole (ABZI), which can be given by intravenous injection and could therefore potentially open up its evaluation as a treatment for hard-to-reach cancers. Using x-ray diffraction data collected at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Photon Source (APS), researchers from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) investigated ABZI compounds and STING. Their results, published in the journal Nature, may have important implications for anticancer immunotherapy.

STING is a protein that mediates innate immunity, and one function of the STING signaling pathway is in mobilizing an immune response against tumors. STING proteins can be activated by cyclic dinucleotides, small molecules that are made by the cytosolic DNA sensor, cGAS, upon sensing of DNA leaking out of the nucleus as a result of DNA damage, including that which might be associated with cancer development.

>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab.

Figure: X-ray crystal structure of the STING protein bound to one of the new molecules.

New technique for two-dimensional material analysis

Discovery allows scientists to look at how 2D materials move with ultrafast precision.

Using a never-before-seen technique, scientists have found a new way to use some of the world’s most powerful X-rays to uncover how atoms move in a single atomic sheet at ultrafast speeds.

The study, led by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and in collaboration with other institutions, including the University of Washington and DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, developed a new technique called ultrafast surface X-ray scattering. This technique revealed the changing structure of an atomically thin two-dimensional crystal after it was excited with an optical laser pulse.
>Read more on the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne website
>Another article is also available on the Linac Coheren Light Source at SLAC website

Image: An experimental station at SLACs Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser, where scientists used a new tool they developed to watch atoms move within a single atomic sheet.
Credit: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory