Cornell scientists have created an evolutionary model that connects organisms living in today’s oxygen-rich atmosphere to a time, billions of years ago, when Earth’s atmosphere had little oxygen – by analyzing ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), a family of proteins used by all free-living organisms and many viruses to repair and replicate DNA.
“By understanding the evolution of these proteins, we can understand how nature adapts to environmental changes at the molecular level. In turn, we also learn about our planet’s past,” said Nozomi Ando, associate professor of chemistry and chemical biology in the College of Arts and Sciences and corresponding author of the study. “Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase family reveals an ancestral clade” published in eLife Digest Oct. 4.
Co-first authors of the study are Audrey Burnim and Da Xu, doctoral students in chemistry and chemical biology, and Matthew Spence, Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra. Colin J. Jackson, professor of chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, is a corresponding author.
This undertaking involved a large dataset of 6,779 RNR sequences; the phylogeny took several high-performance computers a combined seven months (1.4 million CPU hours) to calculate. Made possible by computing advances, the approach opens up a new way to study other diverse protein families that have evolutionary or medical significance.
RNRs have adapted to changes in the environment over billions of years to conserve their catalytic mechanism because of their essential role for all DNA-based life, Ando said. Her lab studies protein allostery – how proteins are able to change activity in response to the environment. The evolutionary information in a phylogeny gives us a way to study the relationship between the primary sequence of a protein and its three-dimensional structure, dynamics and function.
Read more on the CHESS website
Image: Tree inference on a ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) sequence dataset as included in the original report, “Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase family reveals an ancestral clade“.