Modifications to novel non-fullerene small molecule acceptor in organic thin film

… for solar cells demonstrates improved power conversion efficiency.

Scientists from the Imperial College London, Monash University, CSIRO, and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology have reported an organic thin film for solar cells with a non-fullerene small molecule acceptor that achieved a power conversion efficiency of just over 13 per cent.

By replacing phenylalkyl side chains in indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based non-fullerene acceptor (ITIC) with simple linear chains to form C8-ITIC, they improved the photovoltaic performance of the material.

C8-ITIC was blended with a fluorinated analog of the donor polymer PBDB-T to form bulk-heterojunction thin films.

The research was recently published in Advanced Materials.

Dr Xuechen Jiao of McNeill Research Group at Monash University carried out grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements at the Australian Synchrotron to gain morphological information on pure and blended thin films.

“By changing the chemical structure of the organic compound, a promising boost in efficiency was successfully achieved in an already high-performing organic solar cells” said Jiao.

>Read more on the Australian Synchrotron website


Technique provides insights into historic maritime artefact

Recently an advanced X-ray imaging technique was used on a historic pewter plate linked to the early exploration of Australia by the Dutch in the 17th century. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proven to be a highly useful analytical tool for the study of cultural objects, such as works of art and artefacts.

“The non-destructive analysis can provide information about how the objects were made, their composition and insight for conservation strategies,” said XRF beamline scientist Dr Daryl Howard.
“The fast detector on the instrument and its high sensitivity allows us to keep the exposure to radiation to a minimum, which is important for rare and valuable objects. “

In December last year, a small group from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam and the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery (QVMAG) in Tasmania brought the Hartog Plate to the Synchrotron for scanning.

>Read more on the Australian Synchrotron website

Image: (extract) X-ray fluorescence scan image showing elemental distribution of bismuth (red) lead (green) and germanium (blue). Entire picture here.

Hijacker parasite blocked from infiltrating blood

A major international collaboration led by Melbourne researchers has discovered that the world’s most widespread malaria parasite infects humans by hijacking a protein the body cannot live without. The researchers were then able to successfully develop antibodies that disabled the parasite from carrying out this activity.

The study, led by the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute’s Associate Professor Wai-Hong Tham and Dr Jakub Gruszczyk, found that the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) causes infection through latching onto the human transferrin receptor protein, which is crucial for iron delivery into the body’s young red blood cells.

Published today in Science, the discovery has solved a mystery that researchers have been grappling with for decades.

The MX and SAXS beamline staff at the Australian Synchrotron assisted with data collection.

Associate Professor Tham, who is also a HHMI-Wellcome International Research Scholar, said the collective efforts of teams from Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, Brazil and Germany had brought the world closer to a potential effective vaccine against P.vivax malaria.

>Read more on the Australian Synchrotron website


Combined imaging approach characterises plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Australian Synchrotron X-ray and infrared imaging techniques have been used in a powerful combined approach to characterise the composition of amyloid plaques that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease is major international health problem that accounts for 50-75 per cent of all cases of dementia in Australia. More than 400,000 Australians are living with dementia and it is the second leading cause of death.

Amyloid plaques are complex protein fragments which accumulate between nerve cells in the brain and may destroy connections between them, and are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease.

“However, it is still not known if the plaques cause Alzheimer’s or whether the Alzheimer’s causes their formation, which is why we need to improve our understanding of protein structures within plaques, and the molecular and elemental composition of tissue surrounding the plaques“ said Dr Mark Hackett of Curtin University, who led the research.

The study was published earlier in the year in Biochemistry.

As very few methods provide sufficient chemical information to study the composition and distribution of the plaques in excised tissue, the investigators decided to combine Synchrotron spectroscopic techniques with additional imaging methods, Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy.

>Read more on the Australian synchrotron website

Image Caption: Histology, FTIR, XFM, and tissue autofluorescence imaging of Aβ-plaques

How ANSTO can assist research community?

Approximately 190 participants attended the first combined ANSTO User Meeting

The event brought representatives of research communities together who have accessed various ANSTO infrastructure platforms.

“It was an opportunity to look at the scientific challenges and questions that are being addressed and consider how multiple techniques and experimental methods can be applied to answering those questions,” said co-convenor Dr Miles Apperley, Head of Research Infrastructure, who spoke at the opening.

ANSTO has nine research infrastructure platforms in total, including the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering and the Australian Synchrotron that provide user-focused open-access support to researchers from Australia and across the globe.

Plenary speakers included leading Australian and International researchers.

2017 ANSTO, Australian Synchrotron Stephen Wilkins Medal awarded

Leonie van ‘t Hag has been awarded the Australian Synchrotron S. Wilkins Medal for her PhD thesis

The award recognises her research to improve the method to crystallise proteins and peptides in order to study their structure, using a technique called crystallography. “Leonie’s insights into crystallisation processes could significantly help the development of treatments for a variety of illnesses,” said Australian Synchrotron Director, Professor Andrew Peele.

Most solid material in the world is made of crystalline structures. Crystals are made up of rows and rows of atoms or molecules stacked up like boxes in a warehouse, in different arrangements.

The science of determining these atomic or molecular structures from crystalline materials is called crystallography.

3D structure of a molecular scaffold with role in cancer

The research team is looking at ways of targeting parts of the scaffold molecule critical for its function

Melbourne researchers have used the Australian Synchrotron to produce the first three-dimensional structure of a molecular scaffold, known to play a critical role in the development and spread of aggressive breast, colon and pancreatic cancer.
Armed with the structure, the research team is looking at ways of targeting parts of the scaffold molecule critical for its function. They hope the research will lead to novel strategies to target cancer.

The research was the result of a long-standing collaboration between Walter and Eliza Hall Institute (WEHI) researchers Dr Onisha Patel and Dr Isabelle Lucet and Monash University Biomedical Research Institute researcher Professor Roger Daly.

Dr Santosh Panjikar, a macromolecular crystallographer at the Australian Synchrotron and Dr Michael Griffin from Bio21 Institute at the University of Melbourne made important contributions to the study, which was published in the journal Nature Communications.