Mycoplasma genitalium’s cell adhesion mechanism revealed

Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted bacterium responsible for several genitourinary disorders.

An estimated 1% of the adult population is infected with this bacterium. Using XALOC beamline at the ALBA Synchrotron it has been defined the structure of the protein involved in the pathogen’s adhesion process. The discovery opens the door to defining new therapeutic strategies to fight this pathogen which is becoming more and more resistant to antibiotics.

Researchers from the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC) and the Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (IBB-UAB) have discovered the mechanism by which the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium (Mgen) adheres to human cells. This adhesion is essential for the onset of bacterial infection and subsequent disease development.
Mgen is an emerging pathogen responsible for several infectious genitourinary disorders. In men, it is the most common cause of urethritis (15-20%) while in women, it has been associated with cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, premature birth and spontaneous abortions. So far, it was known that adherence to the genitourinary tract was possible thanks to proteins known as adhesins, which recognise specific cell surface receptors.
In this study, IBMB-CSIC researchers determined the three-dimensional structure of the Mgen’s P110 adhesins interacting with these cell receptors using X-rays diffraction and protein crystallography at the XALOC beamline. “We made a protein crystal of the P110 adhesin bound to these receptors and diffracted with the synchrotron’s X-rays to determine the exact position of the atoms within the protein, and we were able to decipher the three-dimensional structure”, explains IBMB researcher David Aparicio.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Image: Overall structure of P110. Two views, 90° apart from each other, of the extracellular region of P110 that is formed by a large N-domain, with a seven blade β-propeller (green), the crown (brown), and the C-domain (orange). In the right side panel the view is along the central axis of the β-propeller. The situation of the seven blades in the propeller is explicitly indicated showing that the two terminal blades I and VII are close to the C-terminal domain and opposite to the crown.

 

Analysing the structure of biopolymers for the food industry

A research group from the Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC) in Valencia is using scattering techniques at the ALBA Synchrotron to develop new packaging systems made of biopolymers, an environmentally friendly solution for the food industry.

Plastic is the packaging material of most of the food we consume nowadays. This results in a severe problem as common plastics are made of petroleum – a limited resource with highly variable price – and supposes a huge environmental impact – most plastic wastes need more than 400 years to decompose.

Researchers from the Food Safety and Preservation department of the Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), located in Paterna (Valencia), are looking for more sustainable ways of producing food packaging with appropriate mechanical and chemical properties. They are investigating biopolymers that can be made from biomass such as algae.
“We need to look for alternative sources which do not compete with food. This is why marine resources such as algae and microalgae are very interesting. They proliferate very quickly, grow in a wide variety of environments and do not interfere with food production”, according to Ámparo López-Rubio, researcher at the IATA-CSIC.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Image: At the left, Juan Carlos Martínez, scientist from the ALBA Synchrotron with users Amparo López Rubio and Marta Martínez Sanz from IATA-CSIC at the NCD-SWEET experimental hutch.

Samtack uses ALBA Synchrotron light for improving food packaging

Thanks to the CALIPSOplus European project, Samtack company is analysing at ALBA nanoparticles contained in a new food packaging system that will prevent food oxidation and extend its lifetime.

We all expect to purchase high quality and fresh food that, even if it has been kept for few days in the supermarket shelf, it still maintains its optimum safety and quality such as well as flavor. Different ambient conditions can modify food quality: moisture can affect the crispness of the product, oxygen can oxidize food with large fat components (e.g. potato chips) and change its taste, while light can degrade vitamins from milk or even remove the aromatic and volatile components from ground coffee and off-taste. Hence, different barriers are required to protect food from moisture, oxygen or light and that’s the point where packaging plays a key role. Packaging acts as a barrier and extends the product’s shelf life while contributing to diminish the amount of food that is thrown away and avoiding overproduction of food.

Samtack, founded in 1988 and based in Esparreguera (Barcelona), is a manufacturer of glues and adhesives specialized in the sector of graphic arts and packaging. Samtack has developed a new flexible multilayer system, in collaboration with the University of Zaragoza and the Complutense University of Madrid, that contains Selenium nanoparticles and is capable to increase food shelf life.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Towards oxide-integrated epitaxial graphene-based spin-orbitronics

An international team of researchers from IMDEA Nanociencia and Complutense and Autónoma universities in Madrid, the Institut Néel in Grenoble and the ALBA Synchrotron in Barcelona has elucidated a new property of Graphene/Ferromagnetic interfaces: the existence of a sizable magnetic unidirectional interaction, technically a Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya Interaction of Rashba origin, which is responsible for establishing a chiral character to magnetic domain wall structures.

A major challenge for future spintronics is to develop suitable spin transport channels with long spin lifetime and propagation length. Graphene can meet these requirements, even at room temperature. On the other side, taking advantage of the fast motion of chiral textures, that is, Néel-type domain walls and magnetic skyrmions, can satisfy the demands for high-density data storage, low power consumption, and high processing speed. The integration of graphene as an efficient spin transport channel in the chiral domain walls technology depends on the ability to fabricate graphene-based perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) systems with tailored interfacial SOC.

Studies on graphene-based magnetic systems are not abundant and, typically, make use of metallic single crystals as substrates which jeopardize the exploration of their transport properties (since the current is drained by the substrate). To solve this challenge, the IMDEA Nanociencia leading team succeeded to fabricate high-quality epitaxial asymmetric gr/Co/Pt(111) structures grown on (111)-oriented oxide substrates. The quality of the interfaces was checked by low-energy electron diffraction and also by advanced high-resolution transmission microscopy at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) microscopy centre and resonant X-ray specular reflectivity at BOREAS beamline at ALBA (see fig.1). The magnetic anisotropy and properties were investigated by magneto-optical Kerr magnetometry in IMDEA and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) and complemented with element resolved XMCD magnetometry also at BOREAS beamline. Finally, the chirality of the magnetic domain walls was analysed using a customized magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope and pulse field electronics in collaboration with the team at Institut Néel in Grenoble.

>Read more on the ALBA website

 

A closer look of zink behaviour under extreme conditions

Researchers have explored the phase diagram of zinc under high pressure and high temperature conditions, finding evidence of a change in its structural behaviour at 10 GPa. Experiments profited from the brightness of synchrotron light at ALBA and Diamond.

These results can help to understand the processes and phenomena happening in the Earth’s interior.

The field of materials science studies the properties and processes of solids to understand and discover their performances. Synchrotron light techniques permit to analyse these materials at extreme conditions (high pressure and high temperature), getting new details and a deep knowledge of them.

Studying the melting behaviours of terrestrial elements and materials at extreme conditions, researchers can understand the phenomena taking place inside them. This information is of great value for discovering how these materials react in the inner core of Earth but also for other industrial applications. Zinc is one of the most abundant elements in Earth’s crust and is used in multiple areas such as construction, ship-building or automobile.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Figure: P-T phase diagram of zinc for P<16 GPa and T<1600K. Square data points correspond to the X-ray diffraction measurements. Solid squares are used for the low pressure hexagonal phase (hcp) and empty symbols for the high pressure hexagonal phase (hcp’). White, red and black circles are melting points from previous studies reported in the literature. The triangles are melting points obtained in the present laser-heating measurements. In the onset of the figure is shown the custom-built vacuum vessel for resistively-heated membrane-type DAC used in the experiments at the ALBA Synchrotron. 

Synchrotron light to study how sun radiation damages skin and hair

Researchers from the Institute of Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC) are investigating damage on skin and hair caused by ultraviolet sunlight. They have profited from the ALBA Synchrotron technology to see with high resolution and accurate detail the changes occurring at molecular level, not only at the surface of skin and hair, but also in their inner layers. The samples were previously treated with resveratrol, well-known antioxidant, to evaluate how effective is to develop new and better photoprotective treatments.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Experts disscuss about the future of European particle accelerators

On 19 and 20 July, the ALBA Synchrotron is hosting the 102nd Plenary ECFA meeting, with the participation of 70 researchers, including Dr. Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s Director-General.

The European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) is an advisory body for CERN Management, CERN Council and its Committees, and to other national and international organizations, on the long-term planning of European High-Energy Physics (HEP) facilities, accelerators and equipment adequate for the conduction of a valid high energy research program.

The participants of the plenary meeting will discuss, during two days, about different topics on high energy physics and the main HEP accelerator facilities in Europe will report on their activities. Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s Director-General, will report on CERN activities and perspectives. The role of ECFA is of particular relevance in the period 2018-2020 due to the on-going update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, which will shape the future of the HEP community in Europe and, in particular, what lays ahead for CERN after the High Luminosity LHC project (the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that aims to increase its luminosity such that the accumulated data will be 10 times larger than with the present configuration).

>Read more on the ALBA website

How legionella manipulates the host cell by means of molecular mimics

Using synchrotron light, researchers from CIC bioGUNE have solved the structure of RavN, a protein that Legionella pneumophila uses for stealing functions and resources of the host cell.

Mimicry is the ability of some animals to resemble others in their environment to ensure their survival. A classic example is the stick bug whose shape and colour make him unnoticed to possible predators. Many intracellular pathogens also use molecular mimicry to ensure their survival. A part of a protein of the pathogen resembles another protein totally different from the host and many intracellular microorganisms use this capability to interfere in cellular processes that enable their survival and replication.

The Membrane Trafficking laboratory of the CIC bioGUNE in the Basque Country, led by Aitor Hierro, in collaboration with other groups from the National Institutes of Health in the United States, have been working for several years in understanding how the infectious bacterium Legionella pneumhopila interacts with human cells. During this research, experiments have been carried out at the XALOC beamline of the ALBA Synchrotron and I04 beamline of Diamond Light Source (UK). The results enabled scientists to solve the structure of RavN, a protein of L. pneumophila that uses this molecular mimicry to trick the infected cell.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Figure: (extract) Schematic representation of the structure of RavN1-123 as ribbon diagram displayed in two orientations (rotated by 90° along the x axis). Secondary elements are indicated as spirals (helices) or arrows (beta strands), with the RING/U-box motif colored in orange and the C-terminal structure colored in slate. (Full image here)

ALBA invites primary school students to experiment with science

Mision ALBA is an educational project beginning next academic year and a maximum of 250 primary school groups of 5th and 6th grade from all over Spain will be able to participate.

One mission, four phases: matter, force, energy and light. ALBA is looking for boys and girls to accept the challenge of dealing with synchrotron science! From now on, their teachers can register their groups at www.misionalba.es. The educational project is launched for the first time during the academic year 2018-2019 and up to 5,000 students can participate, totally free. The contents of the Misión ALBA respond to the demands of the official curriculum for this educational stage, including educational guidelines adapted for each autonomous region.

>Read more on the ALBA Synchrotron website

Nobel Prize Barry C. Barish visits ALBA

The Nobel Laureate in Physics for his role in the detection of gravitational waves has visited today the facility.

Accompanied by the director, Caterina Biscari, Ramon Pascual, honorary president, other members of the ALBA management and Enrique Fernández, former director of IFAE, Barry C. Barish has had the opportunity to visit the experimental hall and talk to different researchers who are performing their experiments this week at ALBA.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Picture: (from left to right), Enrique Fernández – former director of IFAE -, Barry C. Barish, Caterina Biscari and Ramon Pascual.

Magnetization ratchet in cylindrical nanowires

A team of researchers from Materials Science Institute of Madrid (CSIC), University of Barcelona and ALBA Synchrotron reported on magnetization ratchet effect observed for the first time in cylindrical magnetic nanowires (magnetic cylinders with diameters of 120nm and lengths of over 20µm).

These nanowires are considered as building blocks for future 3D (vertical) electronic and information storage devices as well as for applications in biological sensing and medicine. The experiments have been carried out at the CIRCE beamline of the ALBA Synchrotron. The results are published in ACS Nano.

The magnetic ratchet effect, which represents a linear or rotary motion of domain walls in only one direction preventing it in the opposite one, originates in the asymmetric energy barrier or pinning sites. Up to now it has been achieved only in limited number of lithographically engineered planar nanostructures. The aim of the experiment was to design and prove the one-directional propagation of magnetic domain walls in cylindrical nanowires.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Image: (extract) Unidirectional propagation of magnetization as seen in micromagnetic simulations and XMCD-PEEM experiments. See entire image here.

Insulator metal transition at the nanoscale

An international team of researchers has been able to probe the insulator-conductor phase transition of materials at the nanoscale resolution. This is one of the first results of MaReS endstation of BOREAS beamline.

Controlling the flow of electrons within circuits is how electronic devices work. This is achieved through the appropriate choice of materials. Metals allow electrons to flow freely and insulators prevent conduction. In general, the electrical properties of a material are determined when the material is fabricated and cannot be changed afterwards without changing the material. However, there are materials that can exhibit metal or insulator behaviour depending on their temperature. Being able switch their properties, these materials could lead to a new generation of electronic devices.

Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) is one such material. It can switch from an insulating phase to a metallic phase just above room temperature, a feature exploited already for sensors. However, the reason why the properties of this material change so dramatically has been a matter of scientific debate for over 50 years.

One of the challenges in understanding why and how this switch occurs is due to a process called phase separation. The insulator-metal phase transition is similar to the ice to liquid transition in water. When ice melts, both liquid and solid water can coexist in separate regions. Similarly, in VO2, insulating and metallic regions of the material can be coexisting at the same time during the transition. But unlike water, where the different regions are often large enough to see with the naked eye, in VOthis separation occurs on the nanoscale and it is thus challenging to observe. As a result, it has been hard to know if the true properties of each phase, or the mixture of both phases, are being measured.

>Read more on the ALBA Synchrotron website

Image: (extract, original here) reconstructed holograms at the vanadium and oxygen edges (518, 529, and 530.5 eV) used to encode the intensities of the three color channels of an RGB (red, green, blue) image. At 330 K, an increase in intensity of the green channel, which probes the metallic rutile phase (R) through the d∥ state, is observed in small regions. As the sample is heated further, it becomes increasingly clear that the blue channel, which probes a intermediate insulating M2 phase, also changes but in different regions. At 334 K, three distinct regions can be observed corresponding to the insulating monoclinic M1, M2, and metallic R phases. As the temperature increases, the R phase dominates. The circular field of view is 2 μm in diameter. (taken from Vidas et al, Nanoletters, 2018).

Ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling of spin molecular interfaces

Researchers from the physics department of the Università “La Sapienza” in Rome, Centro S3 of Modena and ALBA, have demonstrated that magnetic coupling of metal-organic molecules to a magnetic substrate mediated by a graphene layer can be tuned in strength and direction by choosing the symmetry of the molecular orbitals that is largely preserved thanks to the graphene layer. The results have been published in the journal Nano Letters.
Paramagnetic molecules become potential building blocks in spintronics when their magnetic moments are stabilized against thermal fluctuations, for example, by a controlled interaction with a magnetic substrate. Spin molecular interfaces with preserved magnetic activity and exhibiting magnetic remanence at room temperature (RT) can open the route to engineer highly spin-polarized, nanoscale current sources. The need to fully control the organic spin interface and the tuning of ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling to achieve a stable conductance has motivated a vast experimental interest.

Image: Figure 1: a,b) Antiferromagnetic/Ferromagnetic coupling as deduced by element-specific hysteresis loops of  a FePc and CuPc (respectively) to a Cobalt layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy intercalated below graphene. c,d) orbital-porjection of the spin-density for the FePc and CoPc interface reflecting the different symmetry of the molecular orbitals involved in the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interaction.

Record number of visitors at ALBA Open Day

The ALBA Open Day, held last Saturday 5 May, received 2,321 visitors who could discover how this scientific facility works and what its main applications are.

Despite again this year the rain was present in its seventh celebration, the ALBA Open Day welcomed a record number of visitors: 2,321 people.

From 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m., more than 100 volunteers, members of the ALBA staff, showed the facilities to the attendees and explained them the operation and characteristics of the electron accelerators’ complex, aimed at producing synchrotron light for analysing the properties of matter.

The event followed a free itinerary where visitors were able to see the devices where the electrons pass through or those used for manipulating the synchrotron light, to participate in fun demonstrations to know more about concepts like vacuum or pressure, microscopy or spectroscopy. New this year, the ALBA Open Day hosted an exhibition to highlight the role of women in science as well as an art exhibition on pinhole photography and solarigraphy, images taken with cans and that collect the trajectory of Sun, respectively. The area devoted to the youngest was also very crowded with experiments and activities for them. Besides, three conferences were given about particle accelerators (Caterina Biscari, director of ALBA), how synchrotron light is generated (Pep Campmany, researcher responsible of the insertion devices section) and why a synchrotron facility is a useful tool (Miguel Ángel García Aranda, scientific director).

>Read more on the ALBA Synchrotron website

 

Strengthening Europe’s leading role in science

Director Jean-David Malo, DG Research and Innovation of the European Commission, received the strategy today at the Bulgarian Presidency Flagship Conference on Research Infrastructures.

“A world where European science is a catalyst for solving global challenges, a key driver for competitiveness and a compelling force for closer integration and peace through scientific collaboration.” This is the vision of LEAPS, League of European Accelerator-based Photon Sources, on which the LEAPS Strategy 2030 is based.

“I believe science makes the world a better place and I’m very happy to be able to present this strategy today”, said Caterina Biscari, director of ALBA and Vice Chair of LEAPS. “I’m convinced it will be a major contribution in how to develop European research infrastructures in a cost-effective and sustainable way. I look forward to the upcoming discussions with the European Commission, with our national funders and with our extensive user community on how we, by joining forces, can boost European science and innovation”.

“By bringing together the community of national and pan European synchrotrons and free electron lasers facilities, the LEAPS initiative should be encouraged as it aims at structuring the European landscape of Research Infrastructures, coordinating strategic investments and facilitating transnational access”, said Jean-David Malo, DG Research and Innovation of the European Commission.

The health, prosperity, and security of European citizens today and in the future depend on meeting increasingly demanding challenges. These can be found in energy and transport, health care and food safety, and sustainable living. This demands new technology, new treatments and a better understanding of the world around us, all of which point to an increased role and reliance on highly sophisticated analytical tools like accelerator-based light sources to provide the most incisive means of measuring and unravelling atomic and molecular structures of the world around us.

Europe hosts 13 synchrotron radiation facilities and six free electron laser facilities which all of them are founding members of LEAPS. They represent a multi-billion Euro investment with an annual operation budget of €700M serving more than 24 000 direct users.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Find out more
>Diamond Light Source has also published an article on the LEAPS Strategy
>DESY has also written about the joint strategy
> Find here the LEAPS website

 

 

Researchers obtain nanometric magnetite with full properties

When reducing materials at the nanoscale, they typically lose some of their properties. The experiments have been carried out at the CIRCE beamline of the ALBA Synchrotron.

Magnetite is a candidate material for various applications in spintronics, meaning that can be employed in devices where the spin of the electron is used to store or manipulate information. However, when it is necessary to create structures of the material at the nanometric scale, their properties get worse. A study, recently published in the scientific journal Nanoscale, has proved that, with suitable growth, magnetite could be used to create nanostructured magnetic elements without losing their properties.

“Oxides have been proposed to be used for spin waves in triangular structures for computing. And our results suggest that magnetite could be used for this purpose, “says Juan de la Figuera, scientist from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC).

>Read more on the ALBA website

Image: Beamline involved where nanometric magnetite has been obtained, keeping its full properties.
Credit: ALBA