Mutated protein could become a non-hormonal contraceptive target

An international team of scientists from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and Nagoya University has explained how mutations in egg coat protein ZP1 cause infertility in women. The study suggests that ZP1 could be a promising candidate for future non-hormonal contraceptive efforts.
ZP1 is a glycoprotein involved in the fertilization of eggs by cross-linking egg coat filaments. Because studies in mice showed that lack of ZP1 reduces but does not abolish fertility, scientists believed that this molecule was also not crucial for fertility in humans. This new study, however, suggests that ZP1 may have a much more important role in human reproduction than previously thought. “The results were a big surprise because they suggested that mutations that truncate the human ZP1 protein cause female sterility by hindering its cross-linking function, rather than interfering with other egg coat proteins”, explains Luca Jovine, professor at the Karolinska Institutet and leader of the study.

>Read more on the ESRF website

Image: The mutation W83R of human ZP1 does not hinder its secretion but reduces its cross-linking (panel b), likely due to the fact that – as suggested by the structure of chicken ZP1 (panel a) – W83 (W72 in chicken ZP1) stacks between a sugar attached to ZP1 and the loop that makes the cross-link (“cd loop”). The part of the sugar chain that stacks against W83, which is a fucose residue, was only resolved in the structure of the fully glycosylated protein (violet) whose data came from ESRF ID23-1.

X-rays find key insights in metal-oxide thin film interfaces

Researchers from the Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and ALBA Synchrotron have led a collaborative research, together with the Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), the Dept. of Electronics and Biomedical Engineering (University of Barcelona) and CIC nanoGUNE (Donostia), where they have exploited X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the BOREAS beamline of ALBA for unveiling the optical and spin transport properties of transition metal oxides for photovoltaics and spintronics applications.
There is an urgent need of metallic and transparent electrodes for applications in advanced technologies such as flat panel displays or electrodes for photovoltaics, that may substitute the ubiquitous and exceedingly expensive and scarce Indium-Tin oxide (ITO). The AMO3 perovskites (being A an alkaline earth and M an early 3d transition metal, e.g. SrVO3) are driving attention because their intrinsic metallic character combines with the strong electron correlation within the narrow 3d band, to produce a material having its plasma frequency down to infrared and thus transparent at visible range.

>Read more on the ALBA website

Image: Illustration of different phenomena occurring at the interface between a ferromagnetic insulator and a heavy metal.

Diamond shines its light on Moon Rocks, Martian meteorites & Vesta

An international collaboration involving scientists in Tenerife, the US and the UK, have used Diamond Light Source, the UK’s national synchrotron to investigate the effect of gravity on rocky planets. They examined three billion+ year old rocks from the Moon collected during the Apollo missions, as well as meteorites from Mars, Vesta, and other environments collected in Antarctica.
The team – led by Dr Matt Pankhurst, Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias/(the Canarian Volcanlogical Institute (INVOLCAN) with co-investigators Dr Ryan Zeigler, NASA; Dr Rhian Jones, University of Manchester; Dr Beverley Coldwell, ITER; Dr Hongchang Wang, Diamond Light Source; Dr Robert Atwood, Diamond Light Source and Dr Nghia Vo, Diamond Light Source – aims to use the samples to make comparisons between processes and timescales that form similar rocks that are collected from different gravitational conditions.