The program of construction and commissioning through user experiments of the FEL source FERMI, the only FEL user facility in the world currently exploiting external seeding to offer intensity, wavelength and line width stability, achieved all of its intended targets in 2017.
A promising anticancer drug, AMG 510, was developed by Amgen with the help of novel structural insights gained from protein structures solved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS).
Mutations in a signaling protein, KRAS, are known to drive many human cancers. One specific KRAS mutation, KRAS(G12C), accounts for approximately 13% of non-small cell lung cancers, 3% to 5% of colorectal cancers, and 1% to 2% of numerous other solid tumors. Approximately 30,000 patients are diagnosed each year in the United States with KRAS(G12C)-driven cancers.
Despite their cancer-triggering significance, KRAS proteins have for decades resisted attempts to target their activity, leading many to regard these proteins as “undruggable.” Recently, however, a team led by researchers from Amgen identified a small molecule capable of inhibiting the activity of KRAS(G12C) and driving anti-tumor immunity. Protein crystallography studies at the ALS provided crucial information about the structural interactions between the potential drug molecule and KRAS(G12C).
Image: A structural map of KRAS(G12C), showing the AMG 510 molecule in the binding pocket. The yellow region depicts where AMG 510 covalently attaches to the KRAS protein.
In Feburary a new detector was installed at one of the three MX beamlines at HZB.
Compared to the old detector the new one is better, faster and more sensitive. It allows to acquire complete data sets of complex proteins within a very short time.
Proteins consist of thousands of building blocks that can form complex architectures with folded or entangled regions. However, their shape plays a decisive role in the function of the protein in the organism. Using macromolecular crystallography at BESSY II, it is possible to decipher the architecture of protein molecules. For this purpose, tiny protein crystals are irradiated with X-ray light from the synchrotron source BESSY II. From the obtained diffraction patterns, the morphology of the molecules can be calculated.
>Read more on the BESSY II at HZB website
Image: 60s on the new detector were sufficient to obtain the electron density of the PETase enzyme.
The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) is one of the pioneering synchrotron facilities in the world, known for outstanding user support, training future generations and important contributions to science and instrumentation. SSRL is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Stanford University.
Taiwan Light Source (TLS, 1.5 GeV) and Taiwan Photon Source (TPS, 3.0 GeV) are the two synchrotron light sources currently operated by the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). There are around 13,000 academic user visits to NSRRC every year; approximately 10% are international.
Nanoparticles easily enter into cells. New insights about how they are distributed and what they do there are shown for the first time by high-resolution 3D microscopy images from BESSY II.
For example, certain nanoparticles accumulate preferentially in certain organelles of the cell. This can increase the energy costs in the cell. “The cell looks like it has just run a marathon, apparently, the cell requires energy to absorb such nanoparticles” says lead author James McNally.
Today, nanoparticles are not only in cosmetic products, but everywhere, in the air, in water, in the soil and in food. Because they are so tiny, they easily enter into the cells in our body. This is also of interest for medical applications: Nanoparticles coated with active ingredients could be specifically introduced into cells, for example to destroy cancer cells. However, there is still much to be learned about how nanoparticles are distributed in the cells, what they do there, and how these effects depend on their size and coating.
Image: 3D architecture of the cell with different organelles: mitochondria (green), lysosomes (purple), multivesicular bodies (red), endoplasmic reticulum (cream).
Credit: Burcu Kepsutlu/HZB
New collaboration between scientists at the five U.S. Department of Energy light source facilities will develop flexible software to easily process big data.
Light source facilities are tackling some of today’s biggest scientific challenges, from designing new quantum materials to revealing protein structures. But as these facilities continue to become more technologically advanced, processing the wealth of data they produce has become a challenge of its own. By 2028, the five U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science light sources, will produce data at the exabyte scale, or on the order of billions of gigabytes, each year. Now, scientists have come together to develop synergistic software to solve that challenge.
With funding from DOE for a two-year pilot program, scientists from the five light sources have formed a Data Solution Task Force that will demonstrate, build, and implement software, cyberinfrastructure, and algorithms that address universal needs between all five facilities. These needs range from real-time data analysis capabilities to data storage and archival resources.
“It is exciting to see the progress that is being made by all the light sources working together to produce solutions that will be deployed across the whole DOE complex,” said Stuart Campbell, leader of the data acquisition, management and analysis group at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), a DOE Office of Science user facility at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory.
>Explore the other member facilities of the task force and read about their latest science news: Advanced Light Source (ALS), Advanced Photon Source (APS), Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).
Image: Members of the task force met at NSLS-II for a project kickoff meeting in August of 2019.
No less than 151 proposals have been submitted in response to SESAME’s third call (Call “2”) for experiments on its three beamlines that closed on 27 January, thus confirming the ever-increasing demand for use of its facilities.
This time, it has been 64 proposals for experiments on its XAFS/XRF beamline that have been received, and 63 proposals for experiments on its IR beamline, as opposed to 60 and 43 proposals respectively in the second call, and 36 and 19 respectively in the first call. Added to this there have been 24 proposals for use of its MS beamline that comes into operation this year.
As in the first two calls in which there were not only proposals from the Members of SESAME but also from countries further afield (Colombia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico and Sweden), this time again they have not only originated from the Members of SESAME. There have again been proposals from Italy and Kenya, but also from Belgium, Malta, Qatar, South Africa and the U.K.
The large number of proposals and the variety of places from where they originate are excellent by any standards, and SESAME is greatly encouraged by the continuous upward trend in the number being received whether from users having already utilized SESAME’s facilities who are seeking to return to carry out further measurements, or new users from both the SESAME Members and beyond. In the case of the first group, this demonstrates that SESAME’s facilities are fully meeting users’ expectations, while in the second, this is evidence of the sound reputation SESAME is gaining on the world stage as a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source.
Dr. Chithra Karunakaran’s passion for agriculture has taken her around the world and helped her to grow an international agricultural imaging research community from Saskatoon.
Given that the Canadian Light Source (CLS) is situated on the University of Saskatchewan (USask) campus, renowned for agriculture, and surrounded by some of the finest farm land in the country, it’s little wonder it has developed a reputation for outstanding agriculture-related research. Location is only part of the story though; some credit has to go to an engineer determined to apply advanced synchrotron techniques to the study of what we grow and what we eat.
The view from Agriculture Science Manager Dr. Chithra Karunakaran’s office window is dominated by the USask College of Agriculture and Bioresources, which also owns the research greenhouse located across the street from the CLS. Both are part of what she termed “the right ecosystem” needed to expand ag research at the facility, a project she has devoted herself to since she arrived in Saskatoon. The key has been adapting beamline techniques to serve the needs of plant, soil and food scientists.
Image: Karunakaran working with synchrotron science equipment.